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Cardinal Santos Medical Center

Chinese General Hospital

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© 2015 by Winnie Lim Khoo MD. Proudly Philippine Made

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A stroke normally happens when blood cannot supply oxygen and important nutrients to your brain cells. When brain cells do not get enough oxygen or nutrients, they die. A stroke can happen in two main ways: 

  • Ischemic Stroke

  • Hemorrhagic Stroke

An Ischemic Stroke occurs when a blood vessel that supplies the brain becomes blocked or "clogged" and impairs blood flow to part of the brain. The brain cells and tissues begin to die within minutes from lack of oxygen and nutrients. The area of tissue death is called an infarct. About 87% of strokes fall into this category. Ischemic strokes are further divided into 2 groups, including the following:

  • Thrombotic strokes. These are caused by a blood clot that develops in the blood vessels inside the brain.

  • Embolic strokes. These are caused by a blood clot or plaque debris that develops elsewhere in the body and then travels to 1 of the blood vessels in the brain via the bloodstream.

On the other hand, Hemorrhagic...

According to the World Health Organization (WHO); Neurological disorder are diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. In other words, the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscles. These disorders include epilepsy, Alzheimer disease and other dementias, cerebrovascular diseases including stroke, migraine and other headache disorders, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, neuroinfections, brain tumours, traumatic disorders of the nervous system due to head trauma, and neurological disorders as a result of malnutrition.

Hundreds of millions of people worldwide are affected by neurological disorders. More than 6 million people die because of stroke each year; over 80% of these deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries. More than 50 million people have epilepsy worldwide. It is estimated that there are globally 47.5 million people with dementia with 7.7 million new cases every...

Our arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the brain while the veins carries blood with less oxygen away from the brain and back to the heart. A brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a tangle of abnormal blood vessels connecting arteries and veins in the brain. It may develop anywhere in your body but occurs most often in the brain or spine and may begin at any age but usually emerge between ages 10 and 40.  Brain AVM is rare; Based on studies, it occurs in less than 1% of the general population. AVMs are more common in males than in females.


A brain arteriovenous malformation may not cause any signs or symptoms until the AVM ruptures, resulting in bleeding in the brain (hemorrhage). In about half of all brain AVMs, hemorrhage is the first sign. Common symptoms may vary depending on where the AVM is located:

  • 50% of patients with an AVM have an intracranial hemorrhage.

  • 25% have focal or generalized seizures.

  • 50% suffer from headache due to...

High blood pressure is defined as a systolic blood pressure above 140 mmHg and/or a diastolic blood pressure above 90 mmHg. Systolic blood pressure is the maximum pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts. Diastolic blood pressure is the minimum pressure in the arteries between the heart’s contractions. You will be classed as having high blood pressure if yours is consistently above 140/90 mmHg.

The stress that high blood pressure causes on all your blood vessels makes them weaken and predisposes them to damage. The heart also has to work double time to keep your blood circulating.  Once the blood vessel weakens they are more likely to block. Our brain depends on a nourishing blood supply to work properly and survive. But high blood pressure may cause several problems to the brain, including:

  • Transient ischemic attack (TIA). Commonly called a ministroke, It is a brief, temporary disruption of blood supply to your brain. It's often caused by atherosclerosis or a blood clot — b...

A brain aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel in the brain which leads to weakness in the veins wall. It may leak or rupture, causing bleeding into the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). Most often a ruptured brain aneurysm occurs in the space between the brain and the thin tissues covering the brain. Common signs of a ruptured aneurysm include:

  • Sudden and extremely severe headache

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Blurred or double vision

  • Sensitivity to light

  • Seizure

  • Loss of consciousness

  • Confusion

While an unruptured brain aneurysm may produce no symptoms. If one is diagnosed to have brain aneurysm; It is best to visit your doctor for proper assessment and management. You may visit your family doctor or a specialist (neurologist) when it comes to brain aneurysm issues and concerns. If someone who complains of a sudden and severe headache and may have loses consciousness; bring patient to the nearest emergency medical institution or hospital near you. #aneurysm #brainane...

The medical term for an aneurysm that develops inside the brain is an intracranial or cerebral aneurysm or commonly called brain aneurysm. It is a weak bulging spot on the wall of a brain artery very much like a thin balloon or weak spot on an inner tube. Over time, the blood flow within the artery pounds against the thinned portion of the wall and aneurysms form silently from wear and tear on the arteries. As the artery wall becomes gradually thinner from the dilation, the blood flow causes the weakened wall to swell outward. This pressure may cause the aneurysm to rupture and allow blood to escape into the space around the brain. A ruptured brain aneurysm commonly requires advanced surgical treatment.

A ruptured brain aneurysm is a medical emergency. If you suspect someone has had a brain hemorrhage, which could be caused by a ruptured aneurysm. If this happens, bring patient immediate to the nearest emergency medical institution or hospital. #aneurysm #health #hemorrhage #brainaneury...

Brain aneurysm bulges out of a weakened spot in an artery wall. The weakening results from an abnormal loss of the tissue making up the muscular layer of the artery. If that weak area ruptures, blood flows into the brain cutting off oxygen to brain cells, a situation that can cause permanent disability or even be fatal.

it can be similar to heart attacks. Just like a person may have no warning of an impending heart attack, there almost is never a warning that a brain aneurysm is about to rupture. Fortunately, through imaging screening techniques, individuals at high risk of harboring a brain aneurysm can be identified easily with non-invasive imaging tests.

Two quick and safe ways to screen for aneurysms include MRI with MRA (Magnetic Resonance Imaging with angiography) and CT with CTA (Computed Tomography with Angiography). Images that are obtained during these studies will reliably detect aneurysms as small as 2 mm. There are advantages and disadvantages of each of these types of studi...

Statistics about brain aneurysm:

  • About 90% of all brain aneurysms produce no symptoms

  • Brain aneurysms are most prevalent in people ages 35 – 60, but can occur in children as well. The median age when aneurysmal hemorrhagic strokeoccurs is 50 years old and there are typically no warning signs. 

  • ​4 out of 7 people who recover from a ruptured brain aneurysm will have disabilities.

  • Most aneurysms are small, about 1/8 inch to nearly one inch, and an estimated 50 to 80 percent of all aneurysms do not rupture during the course of a person’s lifetime. Aneurysms larger than one inch are referred to as “giant” aneurysms and can pose a particularly high risk and can be difficult to treat.

  • 1 in 4 survivors of a rupture experience some permanent disability

  • Ruptured brain aneurysms account for 3 – 5% of all new strokes.

  • The annual rate of rupture is approximately 8 – 10 per 100,000 people or about 30,000 people in the United States suffer a brain aneurysm ruptur...

An aneurysm is a weak area in a blood vessel that usually enlarges. It’s often described as a “ballooning” of the blood vessel. Aneurysms usually develop at branching points of arteries and are caused by constant pressure from blood flow. They often enlarge slowly and become weaker as they grow, just as a balloon becomes weaker as it stretches. Aneurysms may be associated with other types of blood vessel disorders, such as fibromuscular dysplasia, cerebral arteritis or arterial dissection, but these are very unusual.

An aneurysm is usually located along the major arteries deep within brain structures. When approaching an aneurysm during surgery, normal brain tissue must be carefully spread apart to expose it. Aneurysms can occur in the front part of the brain (anterior circulation) or the back part of the brain (posterior circulation).

Unruptured brain aneurysms are typically completely asymptomatic. These aneurysms are typically small in size, usually less than one half inch in diameter...

A stroke happens when blood stops flowing to any part of your brain, damaging brain cells. The effects of a stroke depend on the part of the brain that was damaged and the amount of damage done. Let us remember that stroke is absolutely a medical emergency.

Symptoms of stroke typically occur on one side of the body and come on suddenly. With a transient ischemic attack (sometimes called a mini-stroke) the symptoms appear and may go away on their own. In any case, it is essential to get the affected person to a nearby emergency department of any hospital as soon as possible to enable prompt treatment. Other possible signs and symptoms of stroke include the sudden onset of:

  1. Weakness or paralysis of any part of the body.

  2. Numbness or a "pins and needles" sensation anywhere in the body.

  3. Difficulty walking 

  4. Loss of balance or coordination

  5. Blurred Vision 

  6. Dizziness 

  7. Severe Headache

  8. Confusion

  9. Slurred speech

  10. Behavioral changes

  11. Muscle stiffness

    ...
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